Redefining Digital Identity: An In-Depth Analysis of LUKSO’s Universal Profile

This article presents an in-depth analysis of LUKSO’s Universal Profiles (UPs) and their significant role in redefining digital identity management. It examines how UPs, underpinned by LUKSO Standards Proposals (LSPs), offer a groundbreaking approach to digital identity and asset management, enhancing both functionality and user experience beyond traditional blockchain capabilities.

Redefining Digital Identity: An In-Depth Analysis of LUKSO’s Universal Profile

Executive Summary

This article presents an in-depth analysis of LUKSO’s Universal Profiles (UPs) and their significant role in redefining digital identity management. It examines how UPs, underpinned by LUKSO Standards Proposals (LSPs), offer a groundbreaking approach to digital identity and asset management, enhancing both functionality and user experience beyond traditional blockchain capabilities.

Key aspects of the thesis include:

  • Innovations in LUKSO’s UPs: UPs introduce a comprehensive system for managing digital identities and assets, providing richer user-profiles and greater control over digital assets. This is a marked advancement over conventional blockchain identity approaches.
  • LUKSO’s LSPs: The LSPs, especially LSP7 and LSP8, are crucial in enhancing the functionality of digital assets on LUKSO. They enable more complex asset interactions and provide extensive metadata capabilities, representing a significant evolution from existing standards like Ethereum’s ERC20 and ERC721/ERC1155.
  • Comparison with Ethereum: LUKSO’s architecture, while maintaining EVM compatibility, offers notable enhancements over Ethereum. These include advanced token functionalities and a more robust framework for identity management, setting LUKSO apart as a more versatile and user-friendly platform.
  • Future Outlook: The author anticipates that LUKSO’s UPs and standards will usher in next-gen applications to the ecosystem. This includes potential use cases in digital arts, gaming, and finance, specifically those that are enhanced via social reputation.

In conclusion, LUKSO’s UPs and LSPs represent a significant stride forward in blockchain technology, offering a more integrated, secure, and user-centric approach to digital identity and asset management. This advancement will likely reshape the blockchain landscape, paving the way for a new era of digital interaction and innovation.


Blockchain and Digital Identity Management

The meteoric rise of blockchain technology has transformed the way we manage digital information, ushering in a new standard of security, transparency, and decentralization. At a high level, blockchains act as a distributed ledger, serving as a central source of truth for all transactions and their associated data, known as blocks. While this architecture has seemingly found product-market fit with decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, the realms of digital identity and reputation-linked social coordination remain unsolved at the layer one (L1) level.

It is evident that Web2-based digital identity systems are fraught with issues of centralization, security, fragmentation, and limited privacy. Blockchains, by their nature, offer many solutions to these problems. They can provide a more secure, transparent, and user-controlled mechanism for managing digital identities, which is crucial in our increasingly digital world.

However, until now, the underlying infrastructure of L1 accounts has made them unsuitable for universal, on-chain identity. This is because Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) compatible blockchains use externally owned accounts (EOAs) as the native user interface. EOAs are limited in that they are simply a set of public and private keys, inherently unable to store any type of data tying them to a user, aside from token balances. Even then, a third-party application such as Etherscan must be used to query/view an EOA’s account balance and transaction history. Moreover, if a user switches to a new EOA or loses access to one they currently own their ‘identity’ becomes fragmented or stuck, respectively. This makes on-chain reputation and identity nearly impossible to manage effectively.

LUKSO, a new EVM-compatible L1 that launched in May of this year, aims to solve the problem of identity by changing the primary user interface to a new smart-contract-based account known as a Universal Profile (UP). This article will provide an in-depth analysis of the architecture of UPs, other token standards that make LUKSO unique, and how these innovations may collectively change the way users interact with blockchains.

Overview of LUKSO

While beyond the scope of this article, it is important to briefly introduce the history of LUKSO and its distinction in the space before we delve into its unique underpinnings. LUKSO was founded by Fabian Vogelsteller and Marjorie Hernandez, both of whom have made notable contributions to the world of blockchain. Vogelsteller, a former Lead DApp Developer at the Ethereum Foundation, is known for authoring ERC20 and web3.js, which are crucial components in today’s DeFi and NFT protocols. Hernandez brings her expertise as an innovator and product specialist, with a notable achievement in creating and managing EY’s Digital Innovation Lab in Berlin. Their collective vision and expertise have significantly shaped the architecture and functionalities of LUKSO.

LUKSO sets itself apart with a focus on the emerging ‘creative economy’, aiming to revolutionize the way brands, creators, and users interact with blockchain technology. In terms of network architecture, LUKSO utilizes a Proof of Stake consensus, equivalent to that of Ethereum 2.0. However, what truly distinguishes the platform is its introduction of Universal Profiles and the suite of standards known as LUKSO Standards Proposals (LSPs). These innovations are designed to enhance functionality, user-friendliness, and the standardization of identity and asset representation on-chain.

LUKSOs Universal Profile: A Comprehensive Overview

Structure and Functionality

UPs on LUKSO represent a foundational shift in how native L1 accounts are managed, accommodating native identity, reputation, and the potential for a gasless user experience.

These ‘smart accounts’ are built on the LUKSO Standards Proposal 0 (LSP0), which is an implementation of the ERC725 standard. ERC725, a proposal made by Fabian Vogelsteller, is a standard for blockchain-based identity that allows for a more complex and interactive form of accounts on-chain.

ERC725X and ERC725Y in Universal Profiles

The implementation of ERC725 in UPs is divided into two main parts: ERC725X and ERC725Y.

  • ERC725X: This part of the standard is designed for executing arbitrary actions, such as transferring tokens or interacting with other smart contracts. It enables UPs to perform a variety of on-chain operations, making them dynamic entities capable of various interactions beyond simple transactions.
  • ERC725Y: This component focuses on data storage. It is a key-value store within the UP for storing all kinds of data, including but not limited to identity information, pointers to off-chain data, and references to other contracts or assets. This flexibility in data storage is key to creating rich, multifaceted digital identities.

Advanced Features and Use Cases

Source: LUKSO Docs

Adding to the flexibility of LSP0 is another suite of LSPs that enhance the functionality, security, and interoperability of UPs. Each LSP addresses specific aspects of the UP, from key management and profile metadata to asset tracking and vaults. These standards facilitate a comprehensive framework, allowing users to manage their digital identities and assets in ways that they never could before. To highlight this, let’s dive into the key LSPs that drive functionality to a UP.

LSP1: Universal Receiver

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP1, known as the Universal Receiver, introduces a standard for handling incoming transactions and interactions in a Universal Profile. This standard allows a UP to process and respond to different types of incoming data and assets in a standardized way.

Example: When a UP receives a token or an NFT, the Universal Receiver can automatically categorize and store this asset, or even trigger specific smart contract functions based on the type of asset received. For instance, the universal receiver could send gaming assets to a particular storage vault associated with that game/dApp, it could reject malicious items from being received, or it could autostake incoming tokens.

LSP2: JSON Schema

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP2 deals with the JSON schema for Universal Profiles. It defines a standard format for the data stored in a UP, ensuring consistency and interoperability across the LUKSO network. This standard is crucial for the integration of various applications and services within the ecosystem.

Example: A dApp can easily read and display a user’s profile information, such as their name and profile picture, as LSP2 ensures that this data is stored in a universally recognized format. This means that there is a singular login and associated data/provenance for every dApp built on LUKSO.

LSP3: Profile Metadata

LSP3 standardizes the metadata associated with a Universal Profile. This includes user-defined information such as names, profile images, and social media links. The standard ensures that this metadata is stored in a uniform and retrievable manner across the blockchain.

Example: A digital artist can include their portfolio link and a brief biography in their Universal Profile, making it easier for collectors and fans to verify their identity and explore their work.

LSP5: Received Assets

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP5 deals with the tracking of assets received by a Universal Profile. It enables UPs to keep a record of all the assets they own or interact with, including tokens and NFTs.

Example: A UP can automatically record the receipt of a new NFT, allowing the user to easily track their growing collection and display it within their profile.

*Note: LSP5 enables users, dApps, and others to view token balances/txns without having to query on a centralized block explorer like Etherscan.

LSP6: Key Management

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP6, or Key Management, is a fundamental standard in the LUKSO ecosystem. It allows for sophisticated control over access and permissions within a Universal Profile. This standard enables users to define multi-signature schemes, set up recovery mechanisms, and delegate specific permissions to different keys.

Example: A user can assign one key for financial transactions and another for identity verification, enhancing security and flexibility in managing their digital profile. Moreover, the key manager allows users to have social recovery if a key is compromised, set up permissions however they like, and swap keys in/out without losing their identity credentials.

LSP9: Vault

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP9 introduces the concept of a segregated ‘Vault’ within Universal Profiles. A Vault is a secure storage mechanism within a UP for holding and managing assets independently. It provides an additional layer of security and organization for asset management and can be thought of as ‘sub-folders’ for storage/access.

Example: A user can store valuable NFTs or large amounts of cryptocurrency in their Vault, separating them from more frequently used assets for enhanced security. Moreover, one could have only ‘safe’ or ‘trusted’ dApps that can access certain vaults.

LSP10: Received Vaults

Source: LUKSO Docs

This standard complements LSP9 by tracking Vaults received by a Universal Profile. It ensures that any Vaults transferred to a UP are recorded and accessible.

Example: In a scenario where a UP inherits a Vault from another user, LSP10 ensures that this transaction is securely recorded and the Vault is integrated into the recipient’s UP. For instance, you could transfer an entire vault of in-game assets to another UP if desired.

LSP12: Issued Assets

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP12 is focused on the assets issued by a Universal Profile. It keeps track of all assets, such as tokens or NFTs, that are created and issued by a UP.

Example: For creators who issue their NFTs, LSP12 provides a clear record of all NFTs minted by them, enhancing transparency and trust in the creator’s ecosystem.


The diverse range of LSPs systematically woven into the UP framework dramatically enhances user experience and flexibility. These standards collectively address a myriad of functionalities – from advanced key management and dynamic asset tracking to sophisticated metadata handling and secure asset storage. Each LSP is thoughtfully designed to solve specific challenges concerning digital identity and asset management. Collectively, this allows UPs to act as a user’s DNA, facilitating their unique interaction with the digital world.

For instance, LSP1’s Universal Receiver and LSP2’s JSON Schema provide seamless interoperability and data consistency, essential for a unified user experience when moving across dApps on-chain. LSP3’s profile metadata allows for richer, more personalized user profiles, elevating the concept of digital identity beyond mere transactional data to a unique digital DNA. LSP5 and LSP12 play pivotal roles in asset management, ensuring transparency and ease in tracking and issuing digital assets, respectively – all without the need for a centralized block explorer. Finally, the concept of Vaults introduced by LSP9 and complemented by LSP10 adds a layer of security and organization, bringing much-needed asset segregation and safekeeping capabilities directly to a user’s account.

The integration of these standards into LUKSO’s UPs marks a significant leap in blockchain-based accounts, offering users a level of control, security, and versatility previously unattainable. This evolution in blockchain identity and asset management paves the way for more innovative uses and applications, specifically those with social components. As these standards continue to evolve and find new applications, they hold the potential to reshape the landscape of digital interactions and asset management on-chain.

Solving On-Chain Identity with Universal Profiles

The management of digital identity and assets on-chain has been a persistent challenge, sparking innovative solutions like Universal Profiles on LUKSO, Soulbound Tokens, and Account Abstraction on Ethereum. Each of these approaches offers unique methods to address the complexities of digital identity in a decentralized environment. This section explores how these technologies differ in their approach to solving on-chain identity issues, focusing on their features, benefits, and limitations.

Soulbound Tokens on Ethereum

Soulbound Tokens (SBTs), proposed by Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin and others, are non-transferable tokens representing aspects of a person’s identity, such as credentials or affiliations. These tokens are linked to “Souls,” a type of wallet address, and cannot be transferred once issued. This immutability poses significant challenges, especially in situations where users lose access to their wallets or need to change wallets. The inability to transfer these tokens could lead to complications in maintaining a consistent digital identity. Additionally, the concept of SBTs aims to shift the NFT paradigm beyond mere ownership and financialization to embody elements of a person’s reputation and history. However, as the assets are mere credentials, any reputation ascribed by them is limited to the issuer – they are not truly linked to a user’s transaction/interaction history on-chain.

Universal Profiles on LUKSO

Universal Profiles, in contrast, offer a more holistic and flexible approach to digital identity and asset management. They allow for rich identity data, granular control over digital assets, and enhanced security. Unlike SBTs, UPs are easily recoverable via key management, providing more flexibility in managing digital identity and assets, especially in cases of wallet changes or key rotations. Moreover, each profile natively maintains a total history of asset balances and transactions – allowing reputation to be directly linked to on-chain activities as well as any credentials received externally.

Account Abstraction on Ethereum

Account Abstraction seeks to simplify user interactions with Ethereum by abstracting away complex cryptographic operations. It allows for more flexible account types, like smart contract wallets with built-in logic for various functions. However, this approach must maintain backward compatibility with Ethereum’s existing system, which can be seen as a limitation. It’s not the native account system of Ethereum but rather an additional layer to improve user experience and security on a system that has certain inherent limitations. Moreover, as it is not the current standard, broad compatibility and adoption may be hindered.


While all three approaches – Universal Profiles, Soulbound Tokens, and Account Abstraction – aim to enhance digital identity and asset management on blockchains, they each have distinct methodologies and challenges. Universal Profiles offers a comprehensive and flexible system for managing digital identities and assets, whereas Soulbound Tokens focus on representing non-transferable aspects of identity but face challenges in situations of wallet loss or change. Account Abstraction improves user experience on Ethereum but must work within the constraints of backward compatibility with the existing Ethereum system.

Beyond UPs: LUKSO’s Token Standards and Their Role in Ecosystem Extensibility

As mentioned, the LUKSO ecosystem was built from the ground up on various innovative LSPs, each designed to enhance the functionality and interoperability within the network. These standards are pivotal in ensuring that the LUKSO platform remains flexible, extensible, and user-friendly. Among the numerous LSPs, LSP8 (Identifiable Digital Asset) and LSP7 (Digital Asset) are particularly noteworthy for their contribution to the ecosystem’s extensibility.

LSP8: Identifiable Digital Asset

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP8 represents a logical evolution in how non-fungible assets are represented on-chain. This standard addresses limitations found in current NFT standards like ERC721 and ERC1155, particularly in terms of metadata, secure transfers, asset representation, and asset interaction. It allows more complex NFT functionality and a simpler user experience in creating, buying, and exchanging assets.

Bytes32 TokenId Type: Unlike the traditional uint256 tokenIDs in ERC721 and ERC1155, LSP8 defines tokenIds as bytes32. This allows for a wide range of applications, including numbers, contract addresses, and hashed values like serial numbers, offering more nuanced asset representation.

Unlimited Metadata and LSP4 Integration: LSP8 enables attaching metadata to the contract in a flexible way, overcoming the limitations of the current token standards that only set basic information like name, symbol, and token URI. LSP8 assets can leverage LSP4-DigitalAssetMetadata for comprehensive metadata representation, including the creators and community behind the asset.

LSP1 Token Hooks: LSP8 introduces token hooks for notifying the sender and recipient during transfers. This feature allows for more complex logic execution, like re-transferring the tokens to another address or implementing custom logic upon transfer.

LSP7: Digital Asset

Source: LUKSO Docs

LSP7 standardizes digital assets, akin to ERC20 tokens in functionality. It provides a framework for the creation, transfer, and management of digital assets on the LUKSO platform. This standard plays a crucial role in the financial aspects of the ecosystem, offering a standardized approach for token interactions.

Comparative Analysis: LUKSO vs. Ethereum Architecture

When comparing LUKSO to Ethereum, several key differences become apparent:

  • Flexibility in Asset Representation: LUKSO’s LSP8 offers more flexibility in representing assets than Ethereum’s ERC721 or ERC1155. The use of bytes32 tokenIds in LSP8 allows for a broader range of asset representations.
  • Metadata and Interaction: LUKSO’s standards, particularly LSP8 and LSP4, provide more comprehensive metadata and interaction capabilities for assets than Ethereum’s NFT standards.
  • Token Hooks and Interactions: LUKSO’s LSP8 introduces token hooks for more interactive asset management, a feature not native to Ethereum’s NFT standards.
  • Backward Compatibility: While both platforms strive for backward compatibility, LUKSO’s approach to integrating new standards like LSP8 and LSP7 is more focused on enhancing functionality and user experience.

In summary, LUKSO’s LSPs, especially LSP8 and LSP7, bring significant advancements to the blockchain ecosystem in terms of asset representation, metadata management, and interactive functionalities. These standards mark a notable evolution from the traditional Ethereum architecture, offering enhanced capabilities for users and developers.


This article is meant to explore the innovation brought about by LUKSO’s Universal Profiles and their profound impact on on-chain identity management and the broader ecosystem. Universal Profiles represent a significant advancement in blockchain technology, offering an enhanced, holistic approach to digital identity and asset management. They stand out by providing richer, more dynamic user profiles, far surpassing the capabilities of what currently exists.

A core element of LUKSO’s innovation lies in its LUKSO Standards Proposals. These standards introduce a new level of functionality, facilitating advanced token features, extensive metadata capabilities, and intricate interactions between users and digital assets. This enhancement is not just a step forward for LUKSO but also sets it apart from existing architectures like Ethereum. While maintaining Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) compatibility, LUKSO manages to carve its niche with distinctive features, particularly in the realm of digital identity, social coordination, and reputation-based systems.

Looking ahead, the potential future developments in LUKSO’s technology stack, especially regarding digital identity and improved asset management, are poised to make a significant impact. The evolution of Universal Profiles could lead to unforeseen use cases, reshaping not just the blockchain landscape but also various sectors including digital arts, gaming, finance, and beyond. This flexibility and robustness of LUKSO’s framework lay the groundwork for novel applications that could redefine our interaction with digital worlds and the management of digital identities and assets.

To conclude, LUKSO’s Universal Profiles and innovative standards are set to reshape the landscape of on-chain identity management. They offer a glimpse into a future where blockchain technology is more user-centric, versatile, and an integrated part of our digital lives.

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